Hopefully, the world will never see a repeat

How Spain’s Encomienda System led to great horrors in the colonial Americas
How Spain’s Encomienda System led to great horrors in the colonial Americas
Image by Public Domain

European governments committed many questionable acts in the new world. Their eagerness to get a foothold in the unknown continent, along with their greed to claim its treasures for themselves, came at a heavy price for the Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Spain’s conquests left behind a vast need

During the 1500s, Spain conquered regions of Central, North, and especially South America. They also conquered several islands in the Caribbean.

After leaving the Indigenous governments like the majestic Inca Empire in ruins, the Spanish conquistadors were desperate to bring their new subjects under heel. Thus, they needed a new way to assert authority quickly.

Spain’s Encomienda System…


When societal assumptions can actually benefit humankind

Here are the 4 Key Theoretical Perspectives of Sociology
Here are the 4 Key Theoretical Perspectives of Sociology
Image by Pixabay

Sociology offers two things that most fields of study do not. The first is that it instills a new awareness in our thinking of the social forces that influence our lives. Secondly, it greatly enhances our ability to be active and a better-informed citizen.

While we don’t necessarily need to major in sociology to benefit from its offerings, such a decision is not a bad one by any stretch. The reason is that its principles will always apply — as long as humans exist.

Sociological perspectives

A fascinating element of sociology pertains to sociological perspectives. Simply put, a sociological perspective is when…


Two powerful forces of a new Cold War could force the issue

The Worst Dark Age in History is Staring Us Right in the Face
The Worst Dark Age in History is Staring Us Right in the Face
Image by Public Domain

Remember the last Cold War?

The one that sprang up at the close of World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union?

For over forty years, the world stood by and watched as these two powerful rivals took potshots at one another in many arenas. This open but restricted rivalry took many forms as it unfolded on economic, scientific, political, and even propagandist battlefields.

The original Cold War

Friction between the US and the Soviets began with their uneasy alliance during the Second War. Perhaps the one lone value they shared as nations at that time was a common hatred for…


Something to think about during your next bathroom break

5 Amazing Potential Uses for Urine in the Future
5 Amazing Potential Uses for Urine in the Future
Image by Pixabay

One of humankind’s objectives for survival has been efficiency and sustainability. When we start discovering ways to use our biological waste, then we are pretty much nailing that objective.

Apparently, our pee has some fascinating qualities — enough so to warrant lots of scientific evaluation. As a result, scientists are discovering more and more possible ways to use this resource.

Five possible uses for urine

To the surprise of many, researchers have been considering urine for several years. And when you think about it, there is a good reason. It is something that the world population creates in great abundance — around 2.8 …


Many scientists Fear This Will Eventually Happen To Humans

Could people become venomous in the future
Could people become venomous in the future

Just imagine your neighbor getting angry and leaving a poisonous bite on your arm. This disturbing scenario could become a reality in the future, according to scientists.

How amazing is this? People evolving to grow their own venom glands?

The fascinating new research took a long hard look at salivary glands and how they wound up becoming venom glands in several animals. Since saliva is now known to be the common link, it suggests anyone having a salivary gland can develop venom in the future. This ranges all the way from rodents to people.

A study connecting venom to saliva

This remarkable study was conducted by…


As Babylon thrived under the rule of its most famous king, Hammurabi

7 Forgotten Contributions of Ancient Babylon to the Modern World
7 Forgotten Contributions of Ancient Babylon to the Modern World
Ruins of the ancient city of Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq, 6th century BC — Image by Public Domain

Forgetting about Ancient Babylon can be an easy thing since it was officially formed around 1900 BC. But there are many reasons why we should never forget them.

There are perhaps only a handful of societies and civilizations throughout history that had enormous impact and influence on modern society today. Ancient Babylon is considered as one of those trendsetters. That’s quite remarkable considering how long ago they roamed the Earth.

Legacy of Ancient Babylon

What makes it even more remarkable is to think about the thousands of societies — most of which were more recent than Babylon — that sprang, flourished, and then disappeared…


Marine life fleeing the equator is a disturbing sign

Bizarre Marine Life Movement Might be Indicating Future Mass Extinction
Bizarre Marine Life Movement Might be Indicating Future Mass Extinction
Image by Pixabay

Science has long acknowledged the wonder of Earth’s tropical waters. Perhaps this is because it offers the richest marine life diversity anywhere on our planet. These range from the fantastic coral reefs to the running of sea turtles.

As we might assume, this richness of marine life tapers off as we venture further away from the equator and closer to Earth’s poles.

Ecologists assumed that these familiar global strata, which have been stable for many years, would remain that way long into the future. Unfortunately, this may not be the case anymore.

Gradual warming of tropical waters

A recent study has discovered that the ocean…


Why does fascism scare people so much?

4 Powerful Fascist Movements that have been Forgotten
4 Powerful Fascist Movements that have been Forgotten
Karl Brandt, during the Nuremberg Trials, 1947. — Image by Public Domain

The term ‘fascism’ is used these days liberally. Several scholars and pundits today will be the first to say that the term is not only tremendously misused but also not very well understood¹.

Fascism today has been relegated as a byword or an insult for many things that certain people find offensive. Regardless of how often we hear it used, it’s still a political ideology that never amassed very much power during its heyday in the 1930s.

Despite the fact it was soundly defeated during World War II, fascism still has a certain ‘boogeyman’ connotation. …


Many of these illuminating concepts remain unknown

6 Fascinating Theories from the Field of Psychology
6 Fascinating Theories from the Field of Psychology
Image by Pexels

As we marvel at the impact that science and technology have had in our world, it is too easy to forget about the remarkable progress of the social sciences.

Some view them as ‘soft’ sciences because compared to the ‘hard’ sciences, the results from their studies are typically not as clear-cut — or measurable¹. I would argue that perhaps this makes them more masterful, as a soft scientist would have to be much more intuitive to skillfully identify critical areas on which to focus.

The field of psychology has been a fantastic asset to humankind since it began. From that…


Newest research method reveals volcanic unrest that can lead to eruptions

Imagine being able to predict volcanic eruptions years in advance. This is precisely what some new exciting data has implied.

A study that was published in Nature Geoscience by NASA researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, claims that such a thing is possible. Using statistical analysis of infrared satellite-based data, they surmised that large-scale thermal unrest had preceded five different volcanoes. Specifically, subtle increases in their ‘radiant heat flux’ were observed.

Seeking precision in volcanic events

While several recognizable signals of an upcoming volcano eruption already exist, such as gas emissions and seismic activity, accurate predictions are…

Charles Stephen

Retired Scientist and Jogger. Experienced online publisher since 2006.

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